Wednesday, March 11, 2020

How to Use a Hurricane Tracking Chart

How to Use a Hurricane Tracking Chart A popular activity during hurricane  season is to track the path and progress of tropical storms and hurricanes. Known as hurricane tracking, its a creative way to teach hurricane awareness, learn about storm intensities, and to create and keep your own hurricane records from season to season. Materials Needed: Access to the latest tropical storm and hurricane forecastsA hurricane tracking map/chartA pencilAn eraserColored pencils (blue, light blue, green, yellow, red, pink, magenta, purple, white)A ruler (not required) Getting Started: Monitor the National Hurricane Center for current tropical cyclone activity. Once an invest develops into a tropical depression, subtropical depression, or stronger, its time to start tracking it.Plot the storms first position.To do this, find its geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude). (The positive () number, or the one followed by the letter N, is latitude; the negative (-) number, or the one followed by the letter W, is longitude.) Once you have the coordinates, move your pencil along the right edge of the chart to locate the latitude. Using a ruler to guide your hand in a straight line, move your pencil across horizontally from this point until you find the longitude. Draw a very small circle at the point where the latitude and longitude meet.Label the storm by either writing its name next to the first plot point, or drawing a small box and writing the storm number inside.Continue to track the storm by plotting its position twice daily, at 12 UTC and 00 UTC. Dots repres enting the 00 UTC  position should be filled in. Dots representing the 12 UTC position should be left unfilled. Label each 12 UTC plot point with the calendar day (i.e., 7 for the 7th).Use the Hurricane Tracking Chart key (at the bottom of the page) and your colored pencils to connect the dots with the appropriate colors and/or patterns.When the storm dissipates, write its name or storm number (like in step #3 above) next to its final plot point.(Optional) You may also want to label the storms minimum pressure. (This tells where the storm was at its strongest.) Find the minimum pressure value and the date and time it occurred. Write this value next to the corresponding section of the storm track, then draw an arrow between them.Follow steps 1-8 for all storms forming during the season. If you miss a storm, visit one of these sites for past hurricane data: National Hurricane Center Tropical Cyclone Advisory ArchiveAn archive of advisories and storm summary information. (Click on the storm name, then choose the 00 and 12 UTC public advisories. Storm location and wind speed/intensity will be listed under the summary section at top of the page.) Unisys Weather Tropical Advisory Archive 404An archive of tropical cyclone products, advisories, and bulletins from season years 2005-present. (Scroll through the index to choose the desired date and time. Click on the corresponding file link.) Need an Example? To see a finished map with storms already plotted, check out the NHCs Past Track Seasonal Maps. Hurricane Tracking Chart Key Line Color Storm Type Pressure (mb) Wind (mph) Wind (knots) Blue Subtropical Depression 38 or less 33 or less Light Blue Subtropical Storm 39-73 34-63 Green Tropical Depression (TD) 38 or less 33 or less Yellow Tropical Storm (TS) 980 + 39-73 34-63 Red Hurricane (Cat 1) 980 or less 74-95 64-82 Pink Hurricane (Cat 2) 965-980 96-110 83-95 Magenta Major Hurricane (Cat 3) 945-965 111-129 96-112 Purple Major Hurricane (Cat 4) 920-945 130-156 113-136 White Major Hurricane (Cat 5) 920 or less 157 + 137 + Green dashed (- - -) Wave/Low/Disturbance Black hatched (+++) Extratropical Cyclone

Sunday, February 23, 2020

IT for Creating Value Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

IT for Creating Value - Essay Example This paper shows how information technology plays an important role in creating business value. Competitive advantage through innovation At the present, organizations could be able to get a competitive advantage by renovating their business processes through information technology based arrangements. In fact, the new technology based systems are more effective and accurate for the management of business issues and aspects. In addition, the information technology based system offer an excellent support for effective business processing and operational management. Moreover, the innovation brought by new technology based systems offers superior competitive edge to businesses. In this scenario, businesses are able to market, sell, and take decision by means of these IT based systems (Ramkrishnan R, 2004). Financial Value In more formal words, a primary description of the concept of value could be that each economic actor desires to increase their business profits. Thus, in this scenario, the value is recognized as financial worth, could be built by increasing profits. Consequently increasing the business value through information technology based could be determined by augmenting the business earnings. In addition, increasing the business investment in information technology offers an excellent support to the business as a result it increases business value and performance. Moreover, the use of information technology allows the organizations to reduce overall corporate manual processing operations that also leads to better performance (Stahl, 2002). Enhancing Business Value The new technology based systems also offer an excellent support for business decision making. These decisions are foundational upon the values and decisions about the IT are no immunity to this rule. Though, the most important and valuable thing in company is money or economic value. However, yet in business decisions a lot of values apart from money perform a vital role and indeed yet financia l value could typically be assessed to have a moral side to it. The same can be stated for IT. In addition, the design and use of information technology are extremely reliant upon on fundamental value that could be of an economic or moral or some other nature. It is able to be stated that the diverse values are exchangeable to a confident degree. Moreover, the complexity about the decisions foundational on values comes into view when there are numerous values that have to be recognized however these values do not provide similar results that is when values approach in conflict. In this scenario, one usual reason of clash happens between financial and moral values. Though, it is not seen that moral and financial values conflict unequivocally. Typically these issues could be stated as conflicts between moral or between financial values also (Prasad, 2008). References Prasad, A. (2008). Information Technology and Business Value in Developing Economics: A Study of Intangible Benefits of Information Technology Investments in Fiji. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, Volume 34 Issue 2, pp. 1-11. Ramkrishnan R, S. (2004). Information Technology: Value Creator or Commodity? Retrieved October 27, 2011, from http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=948 Stahl, B. C. (2002). The Moral and Business Value of Information Technology. Retrieved October 26, 2011, from http://www.cse.dmu.ac.uk/~bstahl/publications/2002_Moral_and_Business_Value.pdf Sward, D. (2011).

Friday, February 7, 2020

The Baron Finance Company Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The Baron Finance Company - Coursework Example Kendall the court ruled that both parties were to suffer the losses.Advice For the company to overcome the capacity constraint in future and achieve efficiency in operations without the indication of space constraints, the manager should begin by carrying out proper building analysis to ensure that the space is ample for its operations. On the other hand, the company can obtain funds from various sources that are appropriate and obtain a building with enough space for all the workers.With the losses incurred in mind, everybody within the organization should direct their efforts towards restoring the finances lost during the transition period. Moreover, costs may be cut by minimizing trivial expenses as a way of reinstating the company’s financial position. All departments under finance should be given a role in the activity to ensure that high interconnectedness between the departments is achieved. In this way, it will be easy to eliminate the constraints bit by bit until the system is realigned as desired.Case lawThe law in this case involves intentional deception or ‘Antitrust’ business law, which highlights that the finance department needs to be entrusted with honest personalities. In this case both parties are involved in fraud because they cohere to personal motives mired with dishonesty. Application This law is applicable in that the company employs somebody who refused the job previously hence mistrust arises like in the case McNally v. United State. According to (Clemency, 2002), it is notable how fraud leads to losses in the hands of a ‘competent manager.’ Additionally, the investor is known to be deceitful and an irredeemable social climber who uses any tactic for selfish gains consequently, the company experiences losses that may be avoided. Advice The company should carry out employment procedures appropriately to obtain an employee who is experienced and has adequate expertise to commit to the job. The person shoul d be trustworthy, honest and selfless in order to strive towards achieving organization objectives. In this manner, the person in charge will be able to manage the organization appropriately especially in following up any small inconsistence especially in the finance department. This is for the sole reason that the losses involved are greatest and thus the need to control and prevent fraud as soon as any suspicions are made. Before making any legal move, a fraud examiner should be involved to follow up the inconsistencies keenly in order to establish a strong basis of evidence in regards to the nature of fraud in question. The little indicators identified may lead to greater realizations of fraud masterminds within the organization that may have operated for a long period without suspicion. Therefore, a small indicator should not be ignored because it is a guideline to more evidence when closely examined (Dyson & McKenzie, 1996). 3. Case The case presented is poor human resource man agement. The scenario is between Casati and the Gosia’s business strategy analyst. Law The law applicable is such a circumstance is ‘Foreign Workers & Employee Eligibility’ law. The analyst in this case is careless. This circumstance is likened with the case of Brown v. Kendall. Application The law relates to the organization since negligence is observed in the situation where the business strategic analyst fails to read the entire report hence leaving out the conclusion and forecast

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Surveillance and the State Essay Example for Free

Surveillance and the State Essay Introduction The UK is increasingly sleep walking into a surveillance society[1] to the extent that it has become an inescapable part of life.[2] Every time we make a telephone call, send an email, browse the internet, or even walk down our local high street, our actions may be monitored and recorded.[3] The increasing prevalence of surveillance has perhaps led to the state being viewed by its citizens as the Big Brother of Orwellian fame. This essay intends to focus on the impact of government surveillance and data collection has upon the privacy of citizens and, as a consequence, their relationship with the state. To effectively answer this question there needs to be an examination of the various forms of surveillance and data collection and whether they are constitutionally proper or improper, intrusive or legal, and whether there should be limitations to the quantity of information collated. The advancement of technology in the 21st century has enhanced the quantity and integrity of surveillance information which begs the question are we as a nation ‘too stupid’ to realise how intrusive the UK’s surveillance regime is? Is a citizen’s liberty and privacy at stake with the effects of surveillance from both public and private sector? Furthermore is the legislation governing this issue sufficient in its application? All these matters will be addressed. However, as there are so many forms of surveillance, there will be a particular emphasis on mass surveillance and the use of CCTV and databases. The need for a widespread belief in the importance of individual freedom and executive accountability is undoubtedly a prerequisite to the success of a constitutional democracy. Understanding Surveillance and its Components. The term ‘surveillance’ can be briefly defined as ‘watching over’ which indicates monitoring the behaviour of persons, objects, or systems.[4] There are two broad types of surveillance, mass surveillance and targeted surveillance. Mass Surveillance is not targeted on any particular individual and gathers information for future use, further, it has the potential to erode privacy. Whereas targeted is directed at particular individuals. It can be carried out under a covert or overt means If it is carried out under a covert operation, it is important to note, that the citizen is unaware of the use of targeted surveillance, so therefore the relationship with the state is unaffected by the use of this type. However if in the event where there was unlawful targeted surveillance and the individual was to become aware, the consequences can be detrimental to the relationship between the citizen and the state. It is important to note that alongside the state there are non state agencies and organizations which also occupy an increasingly significant component of surveillance systems today. The case of Patton v Poole Borough council where, only after the surveillance had been completed by the council on a family, were they made aware of this. The council believed they were acting in accordance with RIPA, and that ‘it was necessary for the prevention and detection of crime and it was proportionate for determining the genuineness of information supplied by Ms Patton.’ [5] The tribunal in this instance found the council was in breach of RIPA and did not act in accordance with Article 8. In coming to this conclusion the court had to determine the issue of whether the actions carried out by the council was necessary for the prevention or detection of crime and was it proportionate to what sought to be achieved. The legislation governing Surveillance and the protection of citizens is outlined in the Data Protection Act 1998, Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000, the Freedom of Information Act 2000 and the 1995 European Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC. The Data Protection Act governs the protection of personal data; however this act does not mention privacy of the individual. Privacy The need for privacy is fundamental in a high surveillance society such as the UK. Privacy Internationals survey in 2007 which covered 47 countries indicated there had been in an increase in surveillance in the past year to the detriment of privacy safeguards. 8 of these 47 countries were rated as being ‘endemic surveillance societies’ which included the UK. [6] The need to protect and facilitate the development of privacy of the citizen in order to maintain healthy functioning of society is a necessity with the advancement of technology. Privacy is recognised as a fundamental right by various legal instruments,[7] although Article 8(2) of the European Convention on Human Rights provides limitations.[8] However in English law it is a known fact that there is no right to privacy, it has been suggested that privacy is of such importance to humanity that in the past it needed little formal protection.[9] The high profile case of Kaye v Robertson[10] illustrated the need for the right to privacy in the UK, where photographs of Gorden Kaye were published as he lay suffering from injuries in a car crash. Governments The government’s evidence does not itself explain how the collection of information helps in the pursuit of their objectives, or whether existing processing practices are proportionate to those objectives.[11] The need for this may result in a conflict between the interests of the citizen and the aims of the state. Concerns were also raised about whether government agencies and other public bodies understood how the principles of necessity and proportionality operate in the context of privacy and limitations set out in article 8(2). In order to justify a an interference with article 8’s stipulations, the state must be able to show that it is acting lawfully and for a legitimate aim and the interference is both necessary and proportionate [12] (Hugh Tomlinson p 440) CCTV and how it relates to citizens A Home Office Study concluded that ‘the CCTV schemes that have been assessed had little overall effect on crime levels.’[13] Critics further argue that mass intrusion into peoples movements may not be proportionate and a breach of their rights to privacy under the Human Rights Act.[14] On the roads, camera based restrictions of speed has increased from 300,000 in 1996 to over 2 million in 2004 where an estimated  £113 million in fines have been generated per annum.[15] These statistics have not been welcomed by citizens and have received negative press on the issue. However the overall increase in CCTV on the roads has no doubt contributed to a reduction in deaths and injuries. The state acknowledges how CCTV is valuable in preventing and detecting crime and the overall safety of society. Citizens can be reassured that they can go about their daily business with confidence, it gives members of the business community added security and sends a clear message to those engaged in crime or anti social behaviour that they will be caught and will be prosecuted.[16] Further councillor Hazel Harding acknowledges how CCTV is popular with law abiding members who see it as a preventative and feel much safer [17] agreeing with many members of society who believe, if ‘you have nothing to fear if you have nothing to hide.’ However the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) recognised the contribution of CCTV images is not recorded in a systematic manner.[18] For example, the increased use of Automatic Number Plate Recognition, where cameras can read number plates and then check them against police databases to see if the cars are wanted for any reason, such as road tax, insurance and MOT. However this is not the only purpose of these cameras, every road userâ€℠¢s journeys are stored on a PSNI database for a minimum of two years regardless of the innocence of the subjects. There are about 10 billion innocent people movements stored on the UK database to date. 15 million innocent people’s details are logged and stored everyday.[19] The use of sophisticated data mining software such as ‘Northgate BOF 2.3, Advanced Data Miner’ is used by all police forces in the UK, which allows every journey a person makes to be tracked, traced, mapped and spied upon for the previous two years. Furthermore this is done without individuals consent. Furthermore to date, there has been no parliamentary debate nor legislation passed regulating its use. The system has no safeguards or independent scrutiny in place. The view that ‘there is not and never can be justification for harvesting and storing data information from innocent law abiding citizens by a government without the explicit permission of the individual.’ On the other hand ANPR can be seen as an internationally recognised tool that can significantly reduce volume crime, provided the police use their ANPR system in a lawful, ethical and accountable manner; for the purpose of preventing and detecting terrorism, serious crime, volume crime and road traffic offences.[20] The question arises are the benefits of this outweighing the costs. Such technology enhances the notion that we are living in a surveillance society, others might argue that anything seen as aiding the police to catch murderers and combat crime is necessary. The information Commissioners Office, which advices organisations on the use of CCTV, says cameras must be reasonable and proportionate to maintain public trust and must not breach the Data Protection Act.[21] The Data Protection Act 1998 states that it should be clear from the outset that the purpose of the CCTV recording is to be stipulated and any subsequent deviation from that purpose constitutes a breach of the legislation. This can be applied to any form of information collation where it should only be used for the purpose it was originally intended. Databases ‘There is a need to gather and access personal information to: support the delivery of personalised and better public services; fight crime and protect security; reduce the burden on business and the citizen, and tackle social exclusion through early intervention.’[22] This quotation reflects on the acceptable intention of surveillance and is perceived as an indispensable tool in the day to day operation of social systems. Whereas once it was fairly safe to assume that personal records kept for purposes such as health, policing, social insurance, banking and driver licensing would be stored in relatively watertight containers, the computerization of these records means that they are readily amenable to different forms of integration. Given the immense value placed on personal data, both for commercial exploitation and for risk management, huge pressure is placed on these containers to yield their secrets in shareable ways..[23] Surveillance in this context means focused attention to personal details aimed at exerting an influence over or managing the objects of data or data subjects as they are sometimes called. [24] It can be considered an aiding instrument to organise. Under the Data Protection Act, bodies that are collecting and collating data, be it health records, revenue information or even a school recording pupil information, are legally required to pay an annual fee of  £35 to register with the Information Commissioner that they are collecting and storing such information. There is a two tier structure based on the organisation’s size and turnover, notification fee’s of  £500 applies to data controllers with a turnover of over  £25.9 million or employs over 250 members of staff.[25] What is of concern is who monitors how this information is being used and how secure it is, or to put it another way, who watches the watchers? These questions concern the accountability of data collection. It is only when there is a breach of security that there is awareness that not all bodies are compliant with the Commissioner’s requirements. These breaches tend to become of real public concern when they come to the attention of the media, affecting public relations with the governing bodies to the level of mistrust. For instance in December 2007, it was revealed that a computer hard drive with the details of 3,000,000 UK learner drivers had gone missing in the USA and that the details of 7,500 vehicles and their owner had been lost by the Driver and Vehicle Agency in Northern Ireland. Also in DATE the junior officers of HMRC lost personal details of all families in the UK with a child under 16. The corroborative of data collection this is in the combating of fraud. This can be considered as a law enforcement activity which uses data collection. Statistics have indicated that the use of this form of surveillance to combat fraud can be considered proportionate to combating its aims as success in respect of NHS savings of  £189 million in 2005, the National fraud Initiative savings of  £111 million in 2005-06, and  £10 million saved in respect of cheque and plastic card fraud.[26] Where revenue databases are concerned it is not unreasonable to assume that every individual is treated as a suspect. Innocent people are investigated. Here the question arises again, is the invasion of an individual’s privacy necessary in order to prevent fraudulent claims? Conclusion In conclusion, the advances in technology in this field have permeated our society resulting in the citizen subconsciously accepting surveillance as part of every day life. Surveillance data can be very powerful and can enable consumers to perform a wide range of functions, which can be perceived as part of the issue – how wide should that use deviate from the initial intention before it can be deemed explorative and ultimately exploitive. Among these functions include assessing banking information, health records, constructing consumer profiles in the name of facilitating efficient services, the topical issue of mobile phone calls, and sending and receiving electronic mail.[27] It is important to realise that these same advantages can be considered a threat to certain aspects of society through misuse and mismanagement. There are two sides to this argument of proportionality. And no conclusive all-embracing solution. Perhaps we are due a sequel of George Orwell’s publication, possibly titled â€Å"2084†. One wonders what premonitions would he postulate if he were here today. The introduction of CCTV was viewed as a tool to reduce the amount of crime. To date there is very little substantive research evidence to support this.[28] Perhaps if the state were to provide more community policing on the streets of the UK this may be more productive. Further, a review carried out by the Home Office that looked at street lighting found a significant reduction in the levels of crime to the order of 20%.[29] The results from a YouGov Poll[30] have indicated that 79% of people believe that Britain is increasingly being described as a surveillance society. And a further 66% do not trust governments of whatever political party to keep information on databases confidential. Although 97% agree to CCTV in banks and building societies and a further 85% In my opinion the state wishes to control us absolutely, and to achieve this, it must know absolutely everything about us, every minute of our day. Surveillance Web – the rise of visual surveillance in an English city Bibliography Legislation Textbooks Goold B and Neyland D, New Directions in Surveillance and Privacy (2009 Willan Publishing.) Haggerty K and Samatas M, Surveillance and Democracy, (2010 Routledge.) Hier S and Green J, The Surveillance Studies Reader, (2007 Open University Press) Mattelart A, The Globalization of Surveillance, (2010 Polity Press.) Barendt, Privacy as a constitutional Right and Value, (1997 Oxford University Press) Journals Taylor N, ‘State Surveillance and the Right to Privacy’ Surveillance and Society 1(1):66-85. Lyon D, ‘Everyday Surveillance, Personal Data and social classifications’ Information Communication Society, (2002) Routledge. vol 5 issue 2, Websites Privacy International Leading Surveillance Societies in the EU and the World Survey 2007 accessed 3December 2011. Nidirect Government Services, How is CCTV used in the Community, accessed 05 December 2011. http://www.bigbrotheriswatching.co.uk/ http://www.ico.gov.uk/for_organisations/data_protection/notification/cost.aspx Information Commissioners Office website. Newspaper articles R Ford, ‘Beware Rise of Big Brother State, warns data Watchdog’ The Times,16 August 2004. Sunday Times, A Camera network designed to catch criminals is being turned on innocent motorists reports David Leppard. 4/4/2010. Philip Johnson, Home Affairs Editor, Your Life in their Lens, 02 November 2006 The Telegraph. Q A Birmingham Terrorist Cameras, 17 June 2010. YouGov/ Daily Telegraph, 28th- 30th November 2006. Miscellaneous Surveillance: Citizens and the State Volume 1: Report House of Lords select committee on the Constitution 2nd Report of Session 2008-09. M Gill and A Spriggs Assessing the Impact of CCTV, London Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorie, 43, 60-61. Surveillance, Order and Social Control End of Award Report to the Economic and Social Research Council in respect of grant L210252023 Clive Norris Department of Social Policy, University of Hull State Surveillance and the Right to Privacy Nick Taylor1 Jane Clift Respondent and Slough Borough Council Your life in their lens the telegraph [1] R Ford, ‘Beware Rise of Big Brother State, warns data Watchdog’ The Times,16 August 2004. [2] Surveillance: Citizens and the State Volume 1: Report House of Lords select committee on the Constitution 2nd Report of Session 2008-09 para 1. [3] Ibid. [4] Ibid para 18 [5] Patton v Poole Borough Council (2010) IPT/09/01/C) para 8. [6] Privacy International Leading Surveillance Societies in the EU and the World Survey 2007 accessed 3December 2011. [7] See UN General Assembly, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 10 December 1948, Council of Europe, European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and fundamental freedoms, 4 November 1950, Directive 95/46/EC on the Protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and the free movement of such data. Privacy regulations aimed at governing how personal information is processed were introduced in the 1970’s and 1980’s. [8] European Convention on Human Rights, Article 8(2) There shall be no interference by public authority with the exercise of this right except such as is in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well being of the country. [9] Barendt, Privacy as a constitutional Right and Value, (Oxford University Press 1997) p 7. [10] Kaye v Robertson [1991] FSR 62. [11] Surveillance: Citizens and the State Report, (n2) at 69. [12] Surveillance: Citizens and the State Report, (n2) at 127. [13] M Gill and A Spriggs Assessing the Impact of CCTV, London Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorie, 43, 60-61. [14] Sunday Times, A Camera network designed to catch criminals is being turned on innocent motorists reports David Leppard. 4/4/2010. [15] Philip Johnson, Home Affairs Editor, Your Life in their Lens, 02 November 2006 The Telegraph. [16]Nidirect Government Services, How is CCTV used in the Community, accessed 05 December 2011. [17] Councillor Hazel Harding, Leader of Lancashire County Council and chair of the Local Government Association Safer Communities Board. [18] Surveillance: Citizens and the State (n2) at 74 [19] http://www.bigbrotheriswatching.co.uk/ [20] Police Service of Northern Ireland, Policy Directive PD 01/08 PSNI ANPR Systems, 17 December 2007. [21] http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10341867 Q A Birmingham Terrorist Cameras, 17 June 2010. [22] Ibid at p 21. [23] Surveillance studies Reader – Get in short loan lib [24] D Lyon, ‘Everyday Surveillance, Personal Data and social classifications’ Information Communication Society, vol 5 issue 2, (2002) Routledge. P 1. [25] http://www.ico.gov.uk/for_organisations/data_protection/notification/cost.aspx Information Commissioners Office website. [26] Surveillance state and citizens report. [27] S Hier and J Green, The Surveillance Studies Reader, Open University Press, (2007) pg. 77. [28] R Armitage, ‘To CCTV or not to CCTV’ (2002) Nacro, Crime and Social Policy Section [29] Ibid. [30] YouGov/ Daily Telegraph, 28th- 30th November 2006.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Semantic Web :: Technology, The Green Guide

To establish the extent to which semantic web has been applied in the sustainable building technology domain, an extensive literature search was undertaken. One of the key findings of the review was that there was no real significant application of the semantic web to sustainable building technologies. The few studies with at least some sustainability issues in the built environment are in Macris and Georgakellos (2006) and Edum-Fotwe and Price (2009). Macris and Georgakellos (2006) explored the use of ontologies to help students to understand the contemporary global environmental issues, how they are linked and interrelated and to consider the different views of these issues, before reaching a decision or judgment. Edum-Fotwe and Price (2009), on the other hand, explored the use of ontologies in appraising sustainability of construction projects and development from the social component of sustainable development. The ontologies developed by Macris and Georgakellos (2006) and Edum-F otwe and Price (2009) are nothing more than academic papers and have never gone beyond prototypical system levels. However, it emerged that there is abundance of green/sustainability specifications/standards/ratings/metrics in the literature dealing with various aspects of sustainable constructions. Some examples of these specifications are the Market Transformation Programme database that contains the different building household appliances in the UK houses arranged in a well-defined taxonomy (Market Transformation Programme 2010; Firth et al. 2008; Wood and Newborough 2007), the Green Guide to Specifications (Anderson et al. 2009), the Uniclass (Smith et al. 1997) and the Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED 2010). The Green Guide aims to provide a simple green guide to the environmental impacts of building materials which is easy-to-use and soundly based on numerical data. Uniclass is a new recent classification scheme for the construction industryindustry (Smith et al. 1997). It is intended for organising library materials and for structuring product literature and project information. It incorporates both CAWS (Common Arrangement of Work Sections for building works) and EPIC (Electronic Product Information Co-operation), a new system for structuring product data and product literature. The Green Guide is part of BREEAM (BRE Environmental Assessment Method) an accredited environmental rating scheme for buildings. LEED is an internationally recognized green building certification system developed by the US Green Building Council, providing third-party verification that a building or community was designed and built using strategies intended to improve performance in metrics such as energy savings, water efficiency, CO2 emissions reduction, improved indoor environmental quality, and stewardship of resources and sensitivity to their impacts. Semantic Web :: Technology, The Green Guide To establish the extent to which semantic web has been applied in the sustainable building technology domain, an extensive literature search was undertaken. One of the key findings of the review was that there was no real significant application of the semantic web to sustainable building technologies. The few studies with at least some sustainability issues in the built environment are in Macris and Georgakellos (2006) and Edum-Fotwe and Price (2009). Macris and Georgakellos (2006) explored the use of ontologies to help students to understand the contemporary global environmental issues, how they are linked and interrelated and to consider the different views of these issues, before reaching a decision or judgment. Edum-Fotwe and Price (2009), on the other hand, explored the use of ontologies in appraising sustainability of construction projects and development from the social component of sustainable development. The ontologies developed by Macris and Georgakellos (2006) and Edum-F otwe and Price (2009) are nothing more than academic papers and have never gone beyond prototypical system levels. However, it emerged that there is abundance of green/sustainability specifications/standards/ratings/metrics in the literature dealing with various aspects of sustainable constructions. Some examples of these specifications are the Market Transformation Programme database that contains the different building household appliances in the UK houses arranged in a well-defined taxonomy (Market Transformation Programme 2010; Firth et al. 2008; Wood and Newborough 2007), the Green Guide to Specifications (Anderson et al. 2009), the Uniclass (Smith et al. 1997) and the Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED 2010). The Green Guide aims to provide a simple green guide to the environmental impacts of building materials which is easy-to-use and soundly based on numerical data. Uniclass is a new recent classification scheme for the construction industryindustry (Smith et al. 1997). It is intended for organising library materials and for structuring product literature and project information. It incorporates both CAWS (Common Arrangement of Work Sections for building works) and EPIC (Electronic Product Information Co-operation), a new system for structuring product data and product literature. The Green Guide is part of BREEAM (BRE Environmental Assessment Method) an accredited environmental rating scheme for buildings. LEED is an internationally recognized green building certification system developed by the US Green Building Council, providing third-party verification that a building or community was designed and built using strategies intended to improve performance in metrics such as energy savings, water efficiency, CO2 emissions reduction, improved indoor environmental quality, and stewardship of resources and sensitivity to their impacts.

Monday, January 13, 2020

The Neanderthal Man In Retrospect

We have always been fascinated by Darwin and his theories of evolution. With so many â€Å"schools of thought† of how the earth came into existence, it seemed impossible to narrow down our choices, analyze each theory, and prove everything that it postulates. It was a clear indication that the search for our ancestors, and the â€Å"missing link† will continue until an answer is sought. But, will we ever find out? For now, that remains to be seen. The Neanderthal man is believed to be one of the â€Å"missing links† in our ancestry. Like the Cro-Magnon man, Peking man, and Java man, this â€Å"species† became extinct 32,000 years ago. The purpose of this paper is to familiarize the reader with the Neanderthal man and the possible theories that might have led to his extinction. The remains of the Neanderthal man, also known as Homo (sapiens) neanderthalensis, was discovered in 1856 by workers quarrying for limestone in Neander Valley, Dusseldorf, Germany. These fossils were also found in other parts of Europe and Asia. They were considered a subspecies of humans because upon examination, they had features that are almost similar with humans, except for heavy brow ridges, a long low skull, and a robust skeleton (Foley, 2002). Neanderthals were shorter than the modern man, and as previously stated, had prominent brow ridges. Aside from that, they had low, sloping foreheads, a chinless and heavy, forward-jutting jaw, extremely large front teeth, wider shoulders and pelvis, more conical rib cage, and shorter forearms and lower legs (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2005). Some scientists, majority of which are paleoanthropoloists, claim that these were not a subspecies of humans because of their more â€Å"primitive† appearance. According to Stringer and Gamble (1993), the Neanderthals are a late form of Homo erectus or a descendant of that species. It was believed that the Neanderthals have been living in Europe 200,000 years before the Homo sapiens arrived (BBC News, 2007).In van der Dennen’s Book Review Essay on Neanderthal Man (2005), he stated that: This was the first evidence of a distinct (and now extinct) species or subspecies of human, Homo (sapiens) neanderthalensis, that lived during the later part of the Pleistocene epoch, more familiarly known as the Ice Age, some 200,000 to 30,000 years ago. During 1917, Emil Bachler, in one of his excavations in the mountains of Switzerland, found no fossils of the Neanderthals (Van der Dennen, 2005). However, Mousterian tools and the remains of many cave bears were in abundance. Mousterian tools were most closely associated with Neanderthals. Bachler also felt that the bones and the tools were part of a ritual, and believed that the Neanderthals practice some sort of   â€Å"bear cult† (Van der Dennen, 2005). This led to the notion that the Neanderthals, like humans, had some form of communication and â€Å"culture†. When the fossil of this subspecies was studied by world-renowned pathologist and anatomist, Rudolf Virchow, he found out that the remains had evidence of rickets and osteoporosis, and he attributed this to the ape-like appearance of Neanderthals. Rickets and Osteoporosis is a manifestation of Vitamin D deficiency. Francis Ivanhoe (1970) in his paper supported Virchow’s   statement and postulated that the disease causes skeletal deformities and enlargement of the liver and spleen (Thompson, 2002). This maybe true because in the Pleistocene epoch, more commonly referred to as the â€Å"IceAge†, sunlight was a rarity. Vitamin D, in itself is stored in an inactive form and in order for it to be utilized by the body, it needs to be converted to its active form by UV rays (good source, sunlight). Therefore, it is not surprising that a number of fossils recovered during this era had evidence of bone deformities. However, Trinkaus and Shipman (1992), claimed that Neanderthal features are not caused by these bone diseases and argued that the bones of the 1st Neanderthal, were about 50% thicker than the average modern man. Klein (1989), supported this idea by comparing the long bones of Neanderthals and those of rickets’ victims. He claimed that both of their long bones are more curved than normal but rickets causes a sideways curvature of the femur, while Neanderthal femurs curve backwards. If Neanderthals are more human than ape, then it should follow that these subspecies should have survived today. Surprisingly, this is not the case. One of the earliest theories of the extinction believe that the â€Å"Ice Age† era, with its harsh climate, could have killed the Neanderthals. It points out that during this period, it was not only the climate that affected them, but the scarcity of resources were a factor as well. However, Professor Katerina Harvati, a palaeoanthroplogist from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Germany, said: â€Å"The more controversial date of circa 24,000 years ago, places the last Neanderthals just before a major climate shift that would have been characterised by a large expansion of ice sheets and the onset of cold conditions in northern Europe† (Morrelle, 2007). Another theory is is the â€Å"candelabra model† or â€Å"multiregional evolution† theory. According to Trinkaus and Shipman (1992): â€Å"Though the evidence in different regions of the Old World records genuinely different events, nowhere is there evidence for violent confrontations between Neandertals and modern humans (myths notwithstanding). The mosaic of local evolution, migration, admixture, absorption, or local extinction of Neandertals was a complex process that occurred over the last 10,000 years† (p.416). But, Tattersall (2005), in his book, had another theory. He is convinced that the extinction of Homo neanderthalensis was brought about by the arrival of the more intelligent and   more adaptable Homo sapiens, and that the latter killed the race of the former. On his book he wrote: â€Å"It is vanishingly unlikely, however, that peaceful assimilation was an overall option, with groups of the two kinds of humans [the resident Homo neanderthalensis and the invading Homo sapiens or Cro-Magnons] exchanging members when they met and going their separate ways, or joining forces. More likely, perhaps, if intermixing is to be considered at all, is a scenario of well-equipped and cunning Homo sapiens descending on Neanderthal groups, killing the males – through strategy and guile, certainly not through strength – and abducting the females†(p. 202). However, there was no evidence of large scale killings (Richards, 1987), and the theory of â€Å"Biological displacement† was proposed. It states that the Neanderthals and modern man (Cro-Magnons), coexisted and lived side by side. But, due to the fact that humans are much more intelligent than these subspecies, they might have indirectly led to the extinction of Neanderthals by driving them away from their territories. These led to occasional violence between the groups, but, as expected the humans won, driving them to places with insufficient resources for sustenance. Ironicallly, the very species that are studying these Neanderthals are the cause of their extinction. Works Cited â€Å"Neanderthal Man.† Columbia Encyclopedia 6th edition. 2005. Foley, Jim. â€Å"Creationist Arguments: Neandertals† 31 October 2002. Talkorigins. 14 September 2007 http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/homs/a_neands.html Ivanhoe, Francis. â€Å"Was Virchow Right About Neanderthal?† 1970. Nature, 227:577-579 Klein, Richard. The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins. 1989. Morrelle, Rebecca. â€Å"Neanderthal Climate Link Debated†. 13 September 2007 BBC News. 15 September 2007 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6992721.stm Richards, G. Human Evolution: An Introduction for the Behavioural Sciences. 1987. Stringer, Andrew and Clive Gamble. In Search of Neanderthals. 1993. Tattersall, Ian. The Last Neanderthal: The Rise, Success, and Mysterious Extinction of Our Closest Human Relatives. 2005. Thompson, Bert. â€Å"Neanderthal Man – Another Look.† May 2002. Apologetics Press. 15 September 2007 http://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/491 Trinkaus, E., and P. Shipman. The Neanderthals: Changing the Images of   Mankind. 1992. Van der Dennen, Johan. â€Å"The Continuing Essay of Neanderthal Man: Book Essay.† 2005. Rechten University of Goningen. 15 September 2007 http://rechten.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/FILES/departments/Algemeen/overigepublicaties/2005enouder/NEANDER/NEANDER.pdf â€Å"The Day We Learned To Think – Programme Summary.† 20 February 2007. BBC News. 14 September 2007 http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/horizon/2003/learnthink.shtml   

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Crime in Newark NJ community Free Essay Example, 1500 words

That port serves as the hub for shipments going to New York. The city also has Newark Liberty International Airport which is a very popular local airport (Westergaard, 2006). The races in Newark are varying that also come with the diverse cultures (Fredeen, 2001, p. 7). Its communities are different from one another having busy streets and silent places. As Newark serves as a city and busy region of New Jersey, crimes happen in higher rate than other locations. It was even labeled as one of the cities in USA with major threats and crimes (Roberts and Yeager, 2004, p. 837). Despite of that label, a major improvement occurred when the cases of murder went down recent years. Surveys were then conducted by different groups and they found Newark to be consistently part of the upper 25 towns and cities with many crimes around United States (Sperling and Sander, 2007, p. 329). Probably, Newark experiences its upward turn, but it still faces other problems like healthcare. In analyzing the healthcare support needed, a model called SDS or Symptom Distress Scale is used. We will write a custom essay sample on Crime in Newark NJ community or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now It is also used to know the condition of the patients and how urgently the medical attention is needed (Bowling, 2001, p. 35). It then focuses on the state of mind or the psyche of the person being measured by the scale. It came from the Symptom Checklist which makes use of a questionnaire that the patient must answer and leads to understanding the psychiatric condition of the patient. Symptom Checklist then originated from Hopkins Symptom Checklist wherein 58 questions were contained. It described about six symptom categories. The improved checklist then contained 90 questions with nine subscales. All the scaling models then experienced problems in specifically describing each dimensions of mental illnesses. The results were fluctuating that made the scale not very reliable (MSHIP, n.d. ). McCorkle and Young (1978) then developed a symptom distress scale tested on fifty-three patients with advanced to terminal diseases. The results had scores of ten to forty one, but the scale still needs further studies as to its accuracy when it comes to other medical conditions and symptoms. The study then was followed by a more recent research on the scale created for cancer patients. Cleeland et. al. (2000) made use of 26 symptoms and six items answered by 527 respondents going out of the hospital, 30 patients for transplantation service and another 113 for outpatients. The scale was then put into test using statistics and lessened the symptom numbers on the list.